第五十三期人口學刊2016.12 出刊


本期目錄
Contents


本期共刊登五篇文章,其中四篇為研究論文,一篇為學術活動紀實。第一、二篇論文皆討論到目前社會學門中最熱門的前瞻性主題,貧窮與專業人才外流,值得讀者參考。第一篇研究論文〈臺灣多面向貧窮測量與分析〉,作者為國立中正大學社會福利學系博士陳柯玫、東海大學社會工作學系教授呂朝賢,以及國立中正大學社會福利學系教授王德睦。有別於以往較常使用的經濟資源相關的單面向貧窮測量,本論文作者應用Alkire和Foster(2007)發展的Alkire-Foster計數法,從教育、醫療、環境、健康、生活水準等五個剝奪構面評估貧窮指數,以建立臺灣多面向的貧窮樣貌。研究發現,臺灣縣市的貧窮差距大,主要集中在中南部。同時貧窮指數的不同構面在各縣市的表現也有很大差異。作者指出,從不同構面討論貧窮的測量,有助於辨識各群體貧窮的嚴重程度。本研究跳脫過去只用經濟指標來測量貧窮的 作法,例如收入,而以多面向指標來分析貧窮的樣貌,可作為政府制定貧窮政策的重要參考。

第二篇研究論文〈Brain Drain Issue and Health Professionals’ Migration from West Africa〉,作者為國立臺灣大學健康政策與管理研究所博士生Mat Lowe,及其指導教授國立臺灣大學健康行為與社區科學研究所教授陳端容。本篇論文藉由2005-2013年間,參與西非衛生組織(West African Health Organization, WAHO)年輕醫療專業人員實習計畫(Young Professional Internship Program, YPIP)的118位醫療專業人員所做的調查,探討西非醫療專業人才外流的問題。他們發現西非醫療專業人員外移的原因多半與生涯發展有關,包括生涯發展考量、追求合適的工作及升遷等。性別、婚姻狀態、工時、上一份工作的時間、工作資訊是否來自於非正式的社會網絡等因素對醫療專業人員移民決策有顯著影響。長期以來,撒哈拉以南非洲的醫療專業人員明顯不足,人才外移讓當地的醫療問題更為嚴峻。此篇研究指出,儘管公部門有長期的人才培育計劃,沒有配套的職場制度終究不易留住人才。

第三篇研究論文〈日治初期臺南市中區傳統金匠脈絡研究〉,作者為國立雲林科技大學設計學研究所博士生陳怡君、國立雲林科技大學設計學研究所教授邱上嘉。本論文作者以明治38年至大正3年(西元1905-1914年)的戶口調查簿資料為基礎,配合歷史研究方法考察了當時臺南廳最繁榮的商業區「十字大街」(現臺南市中區)的金工產業、金匠的人口脈絡、從業聚落、金匠關係與師徒系譜,帶領我們認識古都臺南的黃金時代。研究發現,在當時的金匠從業人口中,臺灣籍的比例最高,其間大多是直系或旁系親屬,或是同居寄留或雇傭關係,技藝的傳承多透過師徒、親屬或宗族方式。此外,金匠聚落主要座落於「十字大街」附近的「竹仔街」區域,以及「元會境」與「三界壇」區域。這一篇論文提供我們一個有趣的歷史人口學研究範例。

第四篇研究論文〈學仕化與社會隔離:大學生與當地居民〉,作者為世新大學觀光學系副教授簡博秀。本論文以臺南市中心北部郊區的兩間新建大學及週邊的地方社區為田野調查場域,試圖從社區的空間尺度,勾勒「學仕化」對當地社區居民生活品質的影響。研究發現,臺灣的學仕化過程—即大學城的建立,其實造成了社會區隔與分化,而非如政府所期待的帶動地方發展。因為不動產投資造成當地的二元地景、大學生對社區不如當地居民對社區有認同,同時喧鬧的夜生活也增加公共危險等,都造成學生與當地居民的社會對立與彼此冷漠。學生的個人特質,包括稀薄的地方歸屬感、不成熟,以及短暫居留的居住模式,對在地社區亦產生了一定程度的負面影響。政府應重新思考以設立大學帶動地方發展的迷思,同時對高等教育機構的空間規劃應有更深刻的反思。

除了上述四篇論文,本期也刊載一篇在澳洲布里斯本所舉辦研討會的〈2016年第13屆國際老年聯盟全球研討會活動紀實〉。此篇學術活動紀實由亞洲大學健康產業管理學系教授徐慧娟撰寫。因國際老年聯盟(International Federation on Aging)全球研討會由世界衛生組織(World Health Organization, WHO)指導,在為期三天的會議中,上午場次均有WHO代表或大會邀請之主題演講。另外,會議也透過各場次的文章發表、論壇、電子海報(e-poster)方式討論了災害與老年人、社區式與機構式的老年照顧、高齡友善城市/社區(含失智友善社區)、收入保護與安全、老年虐待法律與權利等數個重要議題。參與會議的國家達32國,與會者包含非政府組織、學術界、政府代表,其中以非政府組織或議題倡議者居多。

整體來說,本期文章討論的主題具有相當的前瞻性,包括人才外移、貧窮、老化等人口學議題。此外,本期論文所涵蓋的時空範圍不只當代臺灣,亦擴及了日治初期臺灣及西非。作為國內人口相關領域最具代表性的學術刊物,本刊期盼能為讀者提供知識上的收穫,也盼能成為政策與公共對話的重要平臺,讓研究成果成為政府部門政策制定的重要參考。

依科技部人社期刊評比之計算方式,《人口學刊》2015年至2016年平均退稿率為53%。下表為《人口學刊》2015年至2016年發行卷期之出版文章從接受投稿至確定刊登平均作業時間。

2015-2016年發行卷期之刊登文章從接受投稿至確定刊登平均作業時間
卷期 接受投稿至正式審查之週數 正式審查至作者收到第一次審查結果之週數 作者第一次回覆審查意見至確定刊登之週數
50期(2015年) 13.24 22.62 5.52
51期(2015年) 8 23 34
52期(2016年) 5.57 13.95 7.19
53期(2016年) 9.5 31.5 13

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研究論文

DOI : 10.6191/JPS.2016.53.01


多面向貧窮 ; 計數法 ; 剝奪 ; 貧窮測量 ; FGT指數 ; multidimensional poverty ; counting approach ; deprivation ; poverty measurement ; FGT measures
中文摘要
貧窮本身具有多樣性特質,無法以單一指標或元素來衡量,近年來國際上已有越來越多研究致力於多面向貧窮的測量。然而,我國貧窮測量研究雖然相當豐沛,但大多使用和經濟資源有關的單面向貧窮做為衡量基礎。有鑑於此,本研究應用Alkire-Foster計數法,計算多面向貧窮指數(由教育、醫療、環境、健康以及生活水準等五個剝奪構面所組成),分析我國多面向貧窮的樣貌。結果發現:一、同時考慮多面向貧窮發生率和貧窮強度,可避免多面向貧窮指數被高估。二、我國縣市之間的多面向貧窮指數分布差異大,貧窮縣市主要集中在中南部。三、剝奪構面在各縣市的貢獻度皆呈現地區差異。四、貧窮組成要素之分解對辨識各類群體在多面向貧窮的嚴重程度有幫助,且剝奪構面在不同組成要素之分解,亦有助於找出對減輕多面向貧窮較有影響力的剝奪構面。
Abstract
Poverty cannot be accurately measured using a single indicator because of its multidimensional nature. In recent years, considerable research has been conducted internationally on multidimensional poverty measurement. However, most research on poverty in Taiwan has focused primarily on unidimensional poverty measurement related to economic indicators. Therefore, this study explored multidimensional poverty in Taiwan by applying the Alkire Foster method. We also used the multidimensional poverty index (MPI), a composite measure of education, medical resources, environment, health, and standard of living. We found that the MPI was not overestimated when the incidence and intensity of multidimensional poverty were accounted for. The MPI substantially varied across different cities and counties and was high in South-Central Taiwan. Regarding decomposition, the contributions of deprivation in each dimension to overall poverty varied by region. The subgroup decompositions allowed us to identify each subgroup’s multidimensional poverty and compute the contribution of each subgroup to overall poverty.

DOI : 10.6191/JPS.2016.53.02


West Africa ; migration ; young professionals ; brain drain ; health professionals ; 西非 ; 遷移 ; 年輕專業人員 ; 人才流失 ; 衛生專業人員
中文摘要
非洲的疾病負擔占全球的25%,但其衛生專業人員則只占全球的3%。缺少衛生專業人力的最主要原因在於衛生專業人員的全球遷移。本研究調查西非衛生專業人員的遷移意圖,並找出預測遷移的影響因子。利用網路問卷,收集118位曾經參與2005-2013年間世界衛生組織在西非(WAHO)成立的青年專業實習計畫(YPIP)的衛生專業人員。問卷回收率93.2%(100/118),其中公共衛生官員74%,醫療人員26%。描述性分析結果顯示出衛生專業人員的遷移受到職涯發展的相關因子影響,包括職涯發展機會(93%)、適合的工作配對(90%)、工作升遷(73%)和工作上的獨立性(72%)。多元迴歸分析顯示性別、婚姻狀況、工作時數、以前的工作資歷、以前工作的國家和工作資訊是否透過社會網絡而來,是影響遷移重要預測因子(p < 0.05)。西非衛生專業人員具有全球遷移的傾向,呼籲進行有效干涉以降低西非衛生領域的潛在人才外流。
Abstract
Despite being home to 25% of the global burden of disease, sub- Saharan Africa only has 3% of the global health workforce. A major contributory factor to this lack of human resources for the health workforce includes the migration of health professionals to rich countries. Using nominal, ordinal and scale items, this paper investigates the migration intentions of West African health professionals, and the factors that are likely to predict their decision to emigrate. An online survey of 118 health professionals who participated in the Young Professional Internship Program (YPIP) of the West African Health Organization (WAHO) from 2005-2013 was undertaken. The response rate was 84.7% (100/118), of which 74% were public health officers and 26% were medical doctors. The results of the descriptive analysis show that health professionals intending to emigrate will generally do so for career development related factors. These include opportunities for career development, suitable job match, job promotion, and independent control of practice. Multiple regression analysis shows that variables such as gender, marital status, working hours, previous job tenure and country of previous job tenure, and source of job information are all significant predictors in their decisions to migrate (p < 0.05). The migration intentions expressed in this study suggest high emigration potential among these West African health professionals, and calls for the development of effective interventions to reduce their brain drain from the West African health sector.

DOI : 10.6191/JPS.2016.53.03


日治時期 ; 戶口調查簿 ; 臺南市中區 ; 傳統金匠 ; the Japanese occupation period ; household registration book ; Tainan City’s central region ; traditional metalsmith
中文摘要
臺南市金工產業自清領時期已經蓬勃發展,當時金銀買賣大多匯聚於現今臺南市中區。本研究以日治初期第一次人口普查明治38年至大正3年(1905年10月-1914年)間的戶口調查簿資料為基礎,並輔以歷史研究方法探討日治初期臺南廳最繁榮商埠區域「十字大街」(現臺南市中區)的金工榮景、金匠人口脈絡、從業聚落、金匠關 係、及師承系譜等相關研究。根據研究結果,分析當時繁榮商埠、經濟、人民習慣與移民人口對金工產業的影響。研究結果顯示:一、日治初期臺南市中區從業的金匠以臺灣人最多,占當時從業金匠總人口數的93.7%。其中又以現居臺南市的金匠的比例最高,占金匠總數的85%;日本與中國金匠僅占總數的6.3%。二、日治初期臺南市中區已經形成多處金匠聚落。其中以「十字大街」附近的竹仔街區域金匠聚集比例最高,其次為元會境與三界壇區域。三、臺灣籍金匠之間的關係大多為直、旁系親屬、同居寄留或雇傭關係;臺灣籍與中國籍金匠由於職業因素在當時產生「共生寄留」的族群融合關係。金匠間的師承系譜明顯採取師徒、親屬、宗族傳承技藝的方式。貴金屬工藝之所以能歷經百年延續,除了臺灣先人的生活習慣之外,當時的商埠、經濟發展、人民奢華氣息,是造就金工產業在臺南百年基石的重要動力。
Abstract
The booming metal craft industry in Tainan dates back to the period when Taiwan was under the Qing dynasty's rule. Back then, trading activities of gold and silver mainly congregated in contemporary Tainan City's central region. This study is based on the household registration book data, as generated from the first population census in the early Japanese occupation period between October 1905 and 1914. Historical methods are employed as auxiliary methods to explore the booming metal craft industry, the demographic composition of goldsmiths, settlements of goldsmiths, relationships between goldsmiths, and the ancestry of craftsmanship in Tainan’s most populous commercial district "Cross Avenue" (the current Tainan City's central region). Based on the research results, analysis was performed to determine the impacts of the then thriving commercial ports, the economy, people's habits, and migrants in the metal craft industry. As revealed by the research results, in the early Japanese occupation period, local Taiwanese goldsmiths were the major goldsmith group in Tainan City's central region, accounting for 93.7% of the entire goldsmith population. In particular, the largest percentage (85%) of goldsmiths resided in the modern-day Tainan City, as for the goldsmith in Japan and Mainland China, there was only 6.3%. In the early Japanese occupation period, several settlements of goldsmiths were formed in Tainan City's central region. In particular, Bamboo Street, which was neighboring "Cross Avenue," was the highly concentrated zone for goldsmiths, followed by the region with a plethora of temple establishments. Most goldsmiths in Taiwan were either people from lineal or collateral relatives, landlord and tenant, or owner and apprentice, and the relationship of "coexisting" between Taiwanese and Chinese goldsmiths emerged owing to this occupation. Apparently, inheritance of the goldsmith skill was based on the bond between master and apprentice, relatives or clans. Other than Taiwanese predecessors' habits in everyday life, why the expensive metal craft industry has continued for over a century can be attributed to flourishing commercial ports, thriving economic development, and an extravagant and affluent atmosphere among residents, all of which were important sources of momentum for the metal craft industry's century-long foundations in Tainan.

DOI : 10.6191/JPS.2016.53.04


學仕化 ; 高等教育機構 ; 社會隔離 ; 見習仕紳者 ; 社區 ; studentification ; higher education institutes (HEIs) ; social segregation ; apprentice gentrifier ; community
中文摘要
本文嘗試從社區的空間尺度觀察學仕化發生所產生的影響,並且藉此說明臺灣政府對高等教育機構空間規劃上的一些迷思。這個迷思發生在政府試圖透過大學城的建設帶動地方的發展,以及連結高等教擴充的正當性給予地方發展的充分理由。延續近年來西方文獻對學仕化與社會融合的研究成果,本文發掘發生在臺灣學生地區的學仕化過程其實是產生了社會區隔的現象─發生在臺南郊區新建大學的學生與居民的社會分化主要是來自於二個不同群體對地區的身份與定位不同所形成的。在研究中發現:藉由不動產投資所形成二元地景、公共安全的漠視、喧鬧的夜間生活、以及對當地社區認同感的缺乏等方面,都形成學生與當地居民產生社會的對立,也形成了在社區中二個群體彼此冷漠的社會關係。本文認為學仕化地區社會隔離的產生與學 生的個人特質是有關的,畢竟比較仕紳者之於仕紳化,學生對於地方的歸屬感是極少的。重要的是,學生未成熟與短暫居住的特質則是對當地社區產生不少的負面影響,而這個負面影響正好否決了國家藉由設置大學帶動地方發展的脆弱假設。
Abstract
Drawing on the observation of the spatial scale of community affected by studentification, this article tried to explain a contradiction stemming from a dominant doctrine that “developing a university town will inspire local developments through state regulation.” Recently, this doctrine was supported by the expansion of higher education institutes in Taiwan, which provided a reasonable excuse to develop new university towns in many cities. Following the suggestions of empirical studies on social division emerging due to studentification, this paper found that social segregation was a condition of the country landscape in southern Taiwan, resulting from the different identity between students at the new-build universities and inhabitants of communities near the universities. This paper argues that, those conditions, including the dualistic landscape formed by real estate investment, the students’ disregard for safety in public spaces, the stirring night economy triggered by students, and the student’s failure to cultivate a sense of community identity, established a two-sided situation between university students and others in the community, and exacerbated the lack of mutual concern between the two groups in the same community. This article concludes that the social segregation in studentified areas resulted from the personal character of university students, who deeply lacked the sense of belonging to the local community. The Key findings are that the immature way of life of incoming students, and their temporary stay as migratory birds acted as negative influences, which indeed denied the weak doctrine in studentified communities.

學術活動紀實

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No abstract available.